Genetically modified (GM) pharmaceutical crops are crops which have been genetically engineered / modified to produce pharmaceuticals. These pharmaceuticals can be vaccines, anti-bodies or therapeutic proteins. Pharma-crops (as they are known) are a contested and little-known terrain, with remarkable benefits beingclaimed for them in South Africa. Other voices ask about the contamination of the food supply and the environment, and the social costs of this technology. Following our own research into on the issue the African Centre for Biosafety (ACB) contends that further research is needed into potential risks to human health and the food chain, and that the outcomes of this need to be kept in the public domain.