Vaccines containing living genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are still at an experimental level in the world today. In South Africa, the first clinical trials for genetically modified (GM) vaccines were approved in 2003.

These included several trials for HIV and TB vaccines, while several more applications for trials are pending, including those for other GM HIV vaccines and a measles vaccine. The number of applications to conduct clinical trials involving such vaccines in South Africa is steadily increasing as medical science continues to seek a cure for the HIV-AIDS and TB pandemics.

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